Breeds of Cows Directory: "H": Hallikar - Hungarian Grey
Information contained here is summarized from many different sources. Please refer to those sources for complete information. Major contributors are Oklahoma State University, Coroba University of Spain, Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, School of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Domestic Animal Diversity Program of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Google Images and Wikipedia
|The Hallikar is a Bos indicus breed selected primarily for draft purposes and are of the Mysore type of zebu cattle. Considered one of the premier draft breeds in India they are often raised by families who have specialized in production of Hallikar draft animals for hundreds of years. It is not unusual for a cow to be brought 100 miles to mated with a bull from these breeders. They are found primarily in the southern region of Karnataka state, in the area surrounding Mysore, in the bottom of the Indian peninsula. In addition to normal draft uses the breed is also used for cart racing. Once trained, a team of Hallikar oxen can pull a loaded cart over rough roads at a rate of 40 miles per day.
The typical color is dark grey. The Hallikar are the origin of the Amritmahal breed.[Oklahoma State University]
|The Hariana a Bos indicus breed used for draft purposes in northern India where they are found. They are well suited to fast road work, being able to pull a one ton load at 2 miles per hour and cover 20 miles a day. While females are kept primarily for breeding of oxen, they are also milked. The breed averages 1400 kg of milk per lactation but high producing animals will produce over 2300 kg in a single lactation.
The breed belongs to the shorthorned type of zebu and is grey or white. The average cow weighs 310 kg and the average bull 430 kg.[Oklahoma State University]
|The Hartón breed is a Criollo type of Bos taurus that were brought by the Spanish conquerors to the high part of the Cauca river valley of Columbia around 1539. The breed has been developed mainly in what is today Departamento del Valle del Cauca, at 950 m.a.s.l., 24ºC and a year rainfall of 1536mm., (dry tropical forest). The most recent census shows about 5460 heads in the Cauca Valley Department and a lower figures in the other departments of Colombia. The National Breeders Association of the Creole Cattle Hartón del Valle, Asoharton, was founded in 1976 and since then has been working for the preservation, genetic improvement and development of the breed. It has also developed breed standards for the Hartón dual purpose system of production. However the breed is sometimes used exclusively for either beef or milk production, according to the preference of each breeder.
The mean linear type traits evaluation, for 662 cows and 11 bulls over 2 years of age, without previous genetic selection was 80 points (good plus). The adaptation of the Hartón breed to the tropical environment is shown through its high tolerance to heat and diseases, a long live span, low mortality, high fertility and reasonable yield of beef, milk and work. The reproductive traits of the breed are: calving interval 360-390 days, calving rate 93.1%, gestation length 287.4 days, estrous cycle in heifers and cows 20 and 21 days respectively, puberty 12 months, effective service 22-24 months and age at first calving 32-33 months. The birth weights are 31+4.6 kg. for females and 35+5.7 kg. for males. The breed has a slow growing rate but reaches 308 kg. of live weight at 22 months in heifers and 426 kg. in four year old cows; in males the growing process is a bit more accelerated and can reach live weights of 280 kg. at 18 months of age, 443 kg. at 36 months, and 750-980 kg. in bulls five years old or more.
The milk yield varied accordingly to the degree of selection, the presence or absence of the calf at milking and the nutritional management. With the presence of the calf at milking the milk yield is 1353+ 157 kg. in a 245 days lactation period, and with the absence of the calf 1956+546 kg. in 298 days lactation period. The variability of milk production measured by the standard deviation (546 kg.) shows the possibility for the genetic improvement of the breed in the milk output especially in the case of milking without the calf presence. In the 296 referred lactations, 11% of the cows had milk yields averages above 3000 kg. The milk has 4-5% fat, 3.6% protein and 12.5% total solids. The partial income from milk sales was 65% and for breeding and sold animals 35%. The annual utility was 58.9%. Most farms use traditional technologies. However, advanced farms use contemporary technologies with the purpose to increase productivity. The breed has been used for the production of crossbreds and hybrids with European and Zebu (Bos indicus) breeds either for milk or beef with good results. This has been one of the ways by which the breed was reduced in previous times. [Oklahoma State University] Images: Google Image Search, Domestic Animal Diversity Information System: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
|The Hays Converter is the first beef breed recognized as a pure breed-registerable under the provisions of the Canada Livestock Pedigree Act and developed by a Canadian Livestock producer. Since the concept was first developed by Senator Harry Hays of Calgary, the objective has been to produce superior animals with the selection based only on performance.
Senator Hays considered the idea for a new beef breed for a long time. Besides wanting to develop a leaner breed of cow, he wanted one that gained weight as efficiently as possible. He aimed at developing an animal that would reach the preferred market weight at the earliest possible age.
The market demanded a steer in the range of 1100 pounds. His goal, for maximum economic benefit, was to breed a beef animal that would reach this desirable market weight during its first year of life - when it could most efficiently convert feed to meat. Senator Hays set out to develop beef cattle that would be measured only on their performance as converters of feed to saleable meat - a cow with hardiness against Canadian winters, fast fleshing ability and calving ease, growthiness, large milk production for her calves and a trouble-free udder, high fertility, good feet and legs, and an excellent carcass.
From his experience as a dairy farmer, Senator Hays knew that a calf needed plenty of milk from its mother to ensure maximum growth. Yet farm experience had shown him that the average beef cow does not produce a sustained supply of milk for her calf after the initial heavy flow at the beginning of lactation. Aware that it required about nine pounds of milk to produce one pound of meat in an average calf, he began the evolution of his new beef animal by mixing dairy and beef cattle.
Senator Hays started his evolutionary quest by carefully combining progeny from three outstanding animals, each from a different existing breed. Spring Farm Fond Hope was a Holstein bull weighing 3,120 pounds whose progeny were distinctive for their large size, rugged constitution and excellent strong feet. His daughters also had a high butterfat test, good udders and average milk production of approximately 12,000 lbs. Certified Meat Sire, Silver Prince 7P was a 2,640 pound Hereford bull noted for his ability to transmit size, length, bone and fleshing ability to his offspring. Jane of Vernon was a 1,600 pound Brown Swiss cow famous for having what was judged the world's most perfect udder - she never had her feet trimmed and her milk production held up until the end of lactation. Her progeny excelled in size, growth and had excellent feet and legs.
Senator Hays selected eight sons of dairy bull Fond Hope to mate in the autumn of 1957 with his neighboring rancher J. Allen Baker's herd of large Hereford cows and arranged to buy all the calves produced. From them and successive generations, he would select only those bulls that weighed at least 1,100 pounds at one year of age; a bull's worth was also measured by the number of offspring that stayed in the herd over the following years. Cows too, were initially selected for their growth performance. But once in the brood herd, their selection depended on their ability to both produce offspring and survive. Every one of them had to have a calf annually to remain in the herd; each one had to become pregnant from the bull's first service, and she had to have the calf unassisted in the open pasture. If she any trouble with the birth, or with the nursing of her calf once safely born, or needed help in any other way - hoof trimming, for example, or milking out - her tail was bobbed to mark her, and she was shipped off to the slaughter-house come autumn.
The evolutionary law of survival of the fittest was followed ruthlessly. Senator Hays insisted that each cow produce a good supply of milk from the Holstein genes in her body - that they supply plenty of milk to the calves near the end of lactation when the calves need it most for growth. He especially admired the qualities of Jane of Vernon - in addition to having the most perfect udder, she never ever had her feet trimmed. He chose her primarily because she peaked in milk production in her eight month.
Two years after the original matings of the sons of Fond Hope and the Hereford cows - the best females born from these mating (granddaughters of Fond Hope were bred to Silver Prince. Five of the best bulls from these matings (sons of Silver Prince and great-grandsons of Fond Hope were selected to mate with their mothers Fond Hope's granddaughters produced by the original matings with Baker's Herefords). Having brought together the specially gifted progeny of Fond Hope and Silver Prince, Senator Hays next introduced the superior genetics of Jane of Vernon's offspring. He mated four of her great-grandsons with one of the Hereford cows. The female progeny from these matings were then put into the breeding herd. Now that he had combined the genetic materials he wanted, the herd was closed to all other outside breeding influence. By 1969 his own breed of cows had been bred to his own breed of bulls regularly and exclusively for seven years, and his work on improving nature's genetics was producing the results he had anticipated.
In 1974 a committee appointed by the Canadian Department of Agriculture inspected the herd. This committee reviewed the breeding program, inspected and nominated "foundation" animals and in December 1975 the first purebred Certificate of Registration was issued for Hays Converters. [Oklahoma State University]
|The Hereford breed was founded some two and one-half centuries ago as a product of necessity. Thrifty and enterprising farmers near Hereford in the County of Herefordshire, England, were determined to produce beef for the expanding food market created by Britain's industrial revolution. To succeed in Herefordshire, these early-day cattlemen realized they must have cattle which could efficiently convert their native grass to beef and do it at a profit.
There was no breed in existence at the time to fill that need, so the farmers of Herefordshire founded the beef breed that logically became known as Herefords. These early Hereford breeders molded their cattle with the idea in mind of a high yield of beef and efficiency of production, and so firmly fixed these characteristics that they remain today as outstanding characteristics of the breed.
Beginning in 1742 with a bull calf from the cow Silver and two cows, Pidgeon and Mottle, inherited from his father's estate, Benjamin Tomkins is credited with founding the Hereford breed. This was 18 years before Robert Bakewell began developing his theories of animal breeding. From the start, Mr. Tomkins had as his goals economy in feeding, natural aptitude to grow and gain from grass and grain, rustling ability, hardiness, early maturity and prolificacy, traits that are still of primary importance today.
Other pioneering breeders were to follow the Tomkins' lead and establish the world-wide renown for the Herefordshire cattle causing their exportation from England to wherever grass grows and beef production is possible.
Herefords in the 1700's and early 1800's in England were much larger than today. Many mature Herefords of those days weighed 3,000 pounds or more. Cotmore, a winning show bull and noteworthy sire, weighed 3,900 pounds when shown in 1839. Gradually, the type and conformation changed to less extreme size and weight to get more smoothness, quality and efficiency.
Herefords came to the United States in 1817 when the great statesman Henry Clay of Kentucky made the first importation -- a bull and two females. These cattle and their offspring attracted considerable attention, but they were eventually absorbed by the local cattle population and disappeared from permanent identity.
The first breeding herd in America is considered to be one established in 1840 by William H. Sotham and Erastus Corning of Albany, New York, and for practical purposes Herefords in the United States date from the Sotham-Corning beginning. The more densely populated eastern area of the United States, including herds in New England, was the early home of Herefords and from there they fanned out to the South and West as the population expanded and the demand for beef increased.
Records of the New York State Fair reveal that 11 Herefords were exhibited there in 1844 and were highly praised. Several breeders were active in exhibiting at fairs and exhibitions in the East and Midwest where the Herefords met with great success. Perhaps the greatest early interest in the breed came from the 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia where T. L. Miller was awarded a medal for the first-prize herd.
HEREFORDS - THE GREAT IMPROVER
With the end of the Civil War and the coming of the American Industrial Revolution, the westward expansion continued and so did America's appetite for beef. Western ranching developed from free land and local longhorned cattle originally brought to Mexico by the Spanish conquerors and allowed to drift northward into what is now America's great southwestern cattle country. These cattle were tough and had the bred-in ability to survive, a trait that enabled their being driven to railhead shipping points and then transported by rail to slaughter at eastern markets. It was on such cattle that Herefords proved the great improver. They survived the rough ranching conditions and improved beef quality in the process. Demand for Hereford bulls boomed.
DEMAND CAUSES INCREASE IN HEREFORD IMPORTATIONS IN 1890's
To satisfy the growing market which developed from the western area cattlemen, Hereford breeders expanded their herds through heavy importations from Herefordshire. Whereas only 200 head were imported up to 1880, more than 3,500 head of Herefords came over during the 1880-1889 period. During this time, breeders of Herefords led by such men as T. L. Miller, C. M. Culbertson and Thomas Clark, all of Illinois, won hard-fought battles for breed acceptance in the agricultural fairs and expositions which furthered the use of Herefords in American beef production.
Early Hereford breeder promoters and exhibitors in the 1870's and 1880's included such names as Earl, Stuart, Fowler, Van Natta and Studebaker of Indiana, and the Swan Land and Cattle Co., forerunner of the present Wyoming Hereford Ranch. These breeders were instrumental in the movement of Herefords to Wyoming, other mountain states and the Northwest. Gudgell and Simpson of Missouri made their start in 1877. Four years later, they were to gain everlasting renown in the Hereford world through importing and concentrating on the great young sire Anxiety 4. No other bull comes close to the stature of Anxiety 4 for he is often credited as being the "Father of American Herefords" and "the bull that gave Herefords hindquarters." Today, he is the common ancestor of nearly all Hereford cattle in this country.
The Hereford industry in America passed a great milestone of progress on June 22, 1881 , when a few breeders met in Chicago at the Grand Pacific Hotel to lay the foundation for the organization of the American Hereford Association, essentially for the two-fold purpose of keeping the breed's records and promoting the interests of Hereford breeders.
For over a century, the AHA has performed its duties with little change in the original bylaws while providing leadership for the industry that has seen Hereford cattle taken to every area, region and territory of America and become the greatest influence in the nation's beef production activity.
HEREFORDS BECOME DOMINANT
It was largely through shows and expositions that Herefords gained their greatest acceptance among cattlemen of this country and, no doubt, the first great impact was scored at the 1883 Chicago Fat Stock Show, the forerunner of the famous International Livestock Exposition which, until closing after the 1975 event, was the premier show for market animals in America. At this show over a century ago, the Hereford steer Roan Boy won the grand championship for his exhibitor, C. M. Culbertson. The steer's early maturity marked the beginning of the end for the previously popular four-year-old steers -- the big, rough, old fashioned kind. In 1886, a two-year-old Hereford was grand champion and in 1903 Hereford yearlings won the carlot grand championship. Three years later a 336-day-old Hereford won the show, the first ever at less than two years old.
Thus, Herefords led the way in revolutionizing beef production in America, largely through the traits of doing ability and early maturity -- getting fat at an early age and producing the ideal in "baby beef." While other traits in beef cattle continued to be important in the cattle breeder's selection program during the ensuing years, there is no doubt that early maturity and fattening ability were of primary concern because (1) the market paid the highest price for the cattle that fattened well on forage; thus (2) the preferred breeding animals were those that demonstrated the ability to fatten readily at a given age.
To get this early maturity, breeders in the late 1930's and 1940's eagerly sought out the compact type of conformation -- short, low set, wide and deep-bodied cattle -- as their preferred breeding stock. By comparison, such cattle were naturally smaller. Their success in achieving such an animal with its abundance of fat and establishing that kind as the breed's "ideal" proved to eventually be a detriment. The market changes that surfaced in the 1960's caused such cattle to be penalized in price and discriminated against.
DEMAND CHANGES HEREFORD TYPE
Following World War II and well into the 1950's, the compact, fat, small type cattle continued to be favored in the show ring, but quietly and almost unnoticed, there was a change taking place in the meat-packing industry and in the basic American consumer's diet which reflected on the demand and price of the favored kind up to that time. The commercial market for fat or beef tallow declined, plus the fact that consumers were unwilling to buy the excess fat on cuts from "over done" carcasses. The result was that beef packers paid less for the overfat cattle and suddenly there was a different type of animal preferred by the industry -- a trimmer, leaner, less fat and more red meat kind. The once preferred wide-backed, overfat and wastey cattle were heavily docked in the market.
This change in market preference was first expressed in Hereford circles at the National Hereford Conference in Denver in 1963, voiced more loudly in 1967 at a conference in Kansas City, and in the now famous 1969 conference in Wisconsin this change was very conclusively demonstrated. Economics in cost of production required faster daily gain at less cost conversion of feed to muscle instead of fat, and far less loss in offal waste in the desired market kind. These requirements translated to more size and a different style of conformation which, in turn, presented the breeder with a tremendous challenge in modernizing the breed and turning it around to a new kind of Hereford endowed with all the basic economical traits to encompass total performance -- no desired trait achieved at the expense of another.
Accomplishing, their objective in a remarkably short time is a great tribute to the dedication of Hereford breeders, the broad genetic base of the breed, and the ability of breeders to utilize modern technology along with the practical application of the breeder's art.
The 1960's saw the beginning of acceptance of the performance era in Herefordom. Breeders began giving concentrated attention toward applying new-found tools such as performance testing, artificial insemination, objective measures, embryo transfers, generation turnover, and sire evaluation to effect more and more rapid genetic change in the past 25 years than perhaps had been accomplished previously since Benjamin Tomkins undertook his systematic efforts to make better beef cattle from his native Herefords.
In 1963, the American Hereford Association embarked on an experimental program to test sires under practical feedlot conditions through their progeny in feedlot performance and carcass yield. That program was replaced by the current National Reference Sire program to identify superior sires. This program led the way for all breeds in sire testing.
The beginning of the American Hereford Association's record keeping activity was expanded to include performance records and initiation of the present Total Performance Records (TPR) service in 1964. Having been developed over some two decades, often amended to utilize new technology and to provide maximum service to breeders, the TPR program that has evolved has proven to be a great service to individual breeders and the breed in general. Presently, there are some two million records of performance on file in the AHA computer, stored for use to assist in selecting for improvements in future cattle generations.
The late 1960's found breeders faced with overpowering evidence that the breed had too many cattle that simply did not measure up in the modern measures of performance and with great competition from European "exotic" breeds, Hereford followers sought out breeders and bloodlines noted for cattle of substantial size and performance.
It was fortunate for the breed that there was an ample and broad genetic base from which to select when the demand came for larger framed cattle. Breeders found the growth traits fairly easy to select for. Both 205-day and yearling weights were accurate measures of growth, fairly easy to obtain, and they were highly heritable.
Within herd selection was a long process when considering the rule of thumb of cow generation being some seven years. Many breeders began looking for short cuts. They searched the country for sires with more frame and size, requesting and analyzing weaning and yearling weights. Leaders in beef cattle education and research stressed growth as a major criteria of performance, often ignoring or de-emphasizing the most important economical trait of beef cattle production, fertility.
Breeders often selected for frame score and mature weight, and paid little heed to fertility, structural soundness, feet and legs. The "yellow and mellow" coloring, a tic of white in the back or extra white on the legs and underline became less of a selection criteria. "If big enough, markings and color became less important."
Where and in what bloodlines could these cattle be found to increase the frame and weight of Herefords? Voices of the speakers at the Madison, Wisconsin, conference in June, 1969, had barely quieted when breeders started looking. The frame 5 steers at the conference came from the Northwest. That's where many breeders headed and they found some bigger-than average framed bulls there. Many were of Evan Mischief, Mark Donald and Real Prince Domino bloodlines. Some breeders selected bigger framed cattle in Canada, many of which traced to an American-bred Prince Domino son, Real Prince Domino 109. Also about this time, breeders found the Line One cattle developed by the U.S. Range and Research Station at Miles City, Montana.
It was at the Miles City station in 1934 that a selection program commenced and the development of inbreeding several different lines with selection emphasis on yearling weights. Of all the different lines developed at Miles City, the most prominent to date has been the Line Ones.
The foundation cows for the Line Ones traced back to stock purchased in 1926 from George M. Miles. The bulls used in the development of the line were half-brothers, Advance Domino 20 and Advance Domino 54, purchased in Colorado. These two foundation sires were strong in Prince Domino blood.
Although the Line One cattle were developed at the Miles City station and they have remained a prime source of seedstock, a number of other breeders drew heavily on Line One sires starting in the 1940's, and these breeders became suppliers of the Line One seedstock in the early 1970's.
The complete and universal acceptance of utilizing performance records was a slow process and, even today, does not have universal appeal. Different breeders place emphasis on different aspects.
Because of such difference in opinions in the past, the present, and likely in the future, Hereford cattle will command the premier spot in the beef cattle industry for years to come. [Oklahoma State University]
|The Herens is a small, triple purpose breed native to the Swiss Alps with a range as far as Chamonix, at the foot of Mt. Blanc, in France. Numbers have decrease since World War II due to a decrease in farming done in the higher mountain regions. The Herens was originally a sporting breed with herd leaders received special care and are trained for the cowfight in which animals push against each other, head to head, until one backs away, the loser.
Coats are dark red to brown, often with a lighter stripe down the back. The average female height is approximately 119 cm and weight from 450 to 500 kg; males are somewhat large with an approximate height of 122 cm and weighing from 600 to 650 kg. The average milk yield was estimated in 1975 at 2909 kg. [Oklahoma State University]
|The Highland breed has lived for centuries in the rugged remote Scottish Highlands. The extremely harsh conditions created a process of natural selection, where only the fittest and most adaptable animals survived to carry on the breed. Originally there were two distinct classes: the slightly smaller and usually black Kyloe, whose primary domain was the islands off the west coast of northern Scotland; the other, a larger animal generally reddish in color, whose territory was the remote Highlands of Scotland. Today both of these strains are regarded as one breed-the Highland. In addition to the red and black of the original strains, yellow, dun and silver-white are also considered traditional colors.
The Highland is the oldest registered breed of cattle, with the first herd book being established in 1884. Around that time, American cattlemen from the western U.S. recognized the natural qualities of the Highland animal and imported them to improve the blood lines of their herds. As a result, the Highland contributed in a great way to the success of the American cattle industry. Today Highlands are found throughout North America, as well as in Europe, Australia, and South America.
Highlands require little in the way of shelter, feed supplements, or expensive grains to achieve and maintain good condition and fitness. In fact, Highland cattle seem to enjoy conditions in which many other breeds would perish. Cold weather and snow have little effect on them. They have been raised as far north as Alaska and the Scandinavian countries. They also adapt well to the more southerly climates with successful herds as far south as Texas and Georgia. Less than ideal pasture or range land is another reason to consider the Highland breed. It has been said that the Highland will eat what other cattle pass by . . . and get fat on it! The Highland is also an excellent browser, able to clear a brush lot with speed and efficiency.
The Highland is a disease resistant breed. Long lashes and forelocks shield their eyes from flying insects, and as a result, pinkeye and cancer eye are uncommon. Highlands do not stress easily, so stress-related diseases occur with less frequency. And other bovine diseases affect the Highland less, due to the genetic advantages they have achieved.
Despite long horns and unusual appearance, the Highland is considered an even-tempered animal - bulls as well as cows. They can also be halter trained as easily as any other breed, even more so because of the Highland's superior intelligence.
The business end of any beef animal is the amount and quality of the beef it produces. Today's market is demanding premium meat, yet leaner and lower in cholesterol. The Highland carcass is ideally suited to meet this challenge. Highland beef is meat that is lean, well marbled and flavorful, with little outside waste fat (the Highland is insulated by long hair rather than a thick layer of fat). For over 20 years, the Highland and Highland crosses have graded in the top of their respective classes at the prestigious National Western Stock Show in Denver, Colorado. In the British Isles, Highland beef is recognized as the finest available and fetches premium prices. The British Royal family keeps a large herd of Highlands at Balmoral Castle, near Braemar, Scotland, and considers them their beef animal of choice.
Today's cattle market is demanding. Regardless of whether you are a small farm with only a few head, or a large ranch with hundreds, your objective should be the same - to produce a fine cut of beef with as little effort and expense as possible. Highlands are the breed to help you do this. Whether your interest is in pure breds or cross breeding, we are confident that the Highland will improve your bottom line.[Oklahoma State University]
|Origin: The Hinterwald, today the smallest cattle breed of central Europe, was able to survive in the southern part of the Black Forest (Large and Small Wiesental, Münstertal, Bernau, Menzenschwand). Characteristics: Through a century-long process of selection on extreme slopes, with an at times meager fodder supply, these sure-footed, healthy and easily satisfied animals came into being, a breed which in a comparison to body weight (ca. 350 to 450 kg) produces a substantial amount of milk (ca. 3200 kg). Also remarkable is its very fine-fibered flesh. Further characteristics of this fine-featured mountain cow are: good health, undemanding, fertility, easy calving, sure-footed in mountains, longevity and a good roughage utilization. In comparison to the high milkfat breeds, many fewer foot injuries are suffered in the back woods and mountainous regions. The animals are pale-yellow to red speckled, variegated or solid; the head is white, frequently with eye spots. The height of the whithers of the cow is approx. 118 cm, and of the bull 125 cm.
Breeding Organization: Since 1983 Pro Specie Rara has built up a maintenance breeding program for the Hinterwald. In 1988 the Swiss Hinterwald Breeding Society was founded which today organizes the whole breeding program under its own direction. The main emphases of the activities consist of animal judging, milk production tests and the supply of breeding animals. The compiling of the breeding and herd book is the real centerpiece of its work.[Oklahoma State University]
|The Holando-Argentino was introduced into Argentina from Holland in 1880 by president Julio A. Roca, importing them to the northern regions of the province of Córdoba, Santa Fe and Pergamino, in the province of Buenos Aires. In 1890 they already appeared in National Exhibition organized by the Rural Society Argentina with large numbers of them being exported by the Dutch government.
While originally kept as a dual purpose breed for both meat and milk production the Argentine Holstein is primarily kept for milk production in more recent times. Producers continue to select for increased production to make his business profitable.
The Holando-Argentino is found in fertile regions throughout Argentina. Milk production is found primarily in the river basins located in the humid Pampas integrated by the provincial ones of Buenos Aires, Santa Fe, Córdoba, Entre Ríos and Pampas. Rapid expansion is also seen in the smaller river basins such as Salta, Tucumán, Formosa, Catamarca and Mendoza, zones of very different geographic and climatic characteristics.
Argentina has a climate and environment that is very condusive to cattle ranching, since the majority of the cattle are raised on native forages the Holando-Argentino must maintain its high level of production with a diet that is 60-70% forage and only 30-40% grain and by-product feeds. Because of this and selection through many years the Holando-Argentino is a modern type animal wiht an excellent feed conversion, giving the producer the ideal balance.
The Holando-Argentino cows are medium sized with the height of 1.40 to 1.5 meters. These animal have a large barrel allowing them to have a high intake of forage.
Its adult weight is between the 600 and 650 kg, which together with an excellent conformation of legs and hooves facilitates their foraging. This is important becuase in Argentina a cow may travel an area of 5 square km foraging.
The breed has fine skin, flat bones, fine neck, wide nose and mammary system of excellent texture, with good udder attachments, ligament and teat placement. The Holando-Argentino has good longevity, typically having five calvings in a lifetime.
Since 1944, the founding members of the Association Criadores de Argentine Holando (ACHA), created an organization to promote the breed and to provide necessary techical support to accomplish such an aim. With that philosophy, the association has maintaned an open herdbook with a series of evaluations an animal must pass in order to be accepted. This evaluation is possible only through the "Official Milk Control" system as declared by law in 1981. ACHA does this work through 96 official offices strategically distributed in all the territory. These offices do the work of gather the data on each animal for the central system.
The Holando-Argentino has been exported to several bordering countries to use in herd improvment, increasing the milk production. [Oklahoma State University]
|Society: Holstein Association USA
|The Holstein cow originated in Europe. The major historical developement of this breed occured in what is now the Netherlands and more specifically in the two northern provices of North Holland and Friesland which lay on either side of the Zuider Zee. The original stock were the black animals and white animals of the Batavians and Friesians, migrant European tribes who settled in the Rhine Delta region about 2,000 years ago.
For many years, Holsteins were bred and strictly culled to obtain animals which would make best use of grass, the area's most abundant resource. The intermingling of these animals evolved into an efficient, high-producing black-and-white dairy cow.
Imports to America
After the New World was settled, and markets began to develop for milk in America, dairy breeders turned to Holland for their seed stock.
Winthrop Chenery, a Massachusetts breeder, purchased a Holland cow from a Dutch sailing master who landed cargo at Boston in 1852. The cow had furnished the ship's crew with fresh milk during the voyage. She proved to be such a satisfactory producer, that Chenery made later importations of Holsteins in 1857, 1859 and 1861. Many other breeders soon joined the race to establish Holsteins in America.
After about 8,800 Holsteins had been imported, cattle disease broke out in Europe and importation ceased.
Americans Build Their Own Breed
In the late 1800's there was enough interest among Holstein breeders to form associations for the recording of pedigrees and maintenance of herdbooks. These associations merged in 1885 to found the Holstein-Friesian Association of America, the Holstein Association.
Characteristics of Holsteins
Holsteins are most quickly recognized by their distinctive color markings and outstanding milk production.
Holsteins are large, stylish animals with color patterns of black and white or red and white.
A healthy Holstein calf weighs 90 pounds or more at birth. A mature Holstein cow weighs about 1500 pounds and stand 58 inches tall at the shoulder.
Holstein heifers can be bred at 15 months of age, when they weigh about 800 pounds. It is desirable to have Holstein females calve for the first time between 24 and 27 months of age. Holstein gestation is approximately nine months.
While some cows may live considerably longer, the normal productive life of a Holstein is six years.
Average production for all Holsteins enrolled in official U.S. production-testing programs in 1987 was 17,408 pounds of milk, 632 pounds of butterfat and 550 pounds of protein per year. [Oklahoma State University]
|The Horro is native to Ethiopia. Primarily a meat breed, it is one of the Sanga-Zebu intermediate type. The breed is usually brown with a small to medium hump.[Oklahoma State University]
|Until the beginning of the 20th century, longhorned Gray Steppe cattle were the foremost breed in Hungary. Used both for draft purposes and for beef, they were yoked in teams of four or more to pull merchant wagons across the steppes, sometimes in long caravans. However beginning about 1850, they began to decrease in numbers due to crossbreeding and the increasing use of Simmental.
In 1861 a superior herd of a Hungarian nobleman was moved to a state farm. Here the breed was selected for early maturity and heavy muscling. In addition, some lines were selected for increased milk production. But the breed continued to lose popularity. By 1975, only two herds remained with a total of 300 cows. By 1982 stock had increased to 850 cows in 6 herds. One of these herds is in the open-air museum at Hortobagy.
The Hungarian Steppe cow weighs an average of 535 kg, with a height at the withers of 135 cm. The average bull weighs 700 kg and stands 150 cm at the withers. [Oklahoma State University]
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