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Breeds of Cows Directory: "S": Sahiwal - Swedish Red Polled

Information contained here is summarized from many different sources. Please refer to those sources for complete information. Major contributors are Oklahoma State University, Coroba University of Spain, Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, School of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Domestic Animal Diversity Program of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Google Images and Wikipedia

 

Sahiwal
The Sahiwal originated in the dry Punjab region which lies along the Indian-Pakistani border. They were once kept in large herd by professional herdsmen called "Junglies". However with the introduction of irrigation to the region they began to be kept in smaller numbers by the farmers of the region, who used them as draft and dairy animals.

The Sahiwal is one of the best dairy breeds in India and Pakistan. It is tick-resistant, heat-tolerant and noted for its high resistance to parasites, both internal and external. Cows average 2270 kg of milk during a lactation while suckling a calf and much higher milk yields have been recorded. Due to their heat tolerance and high milk production they have been exported to other Asian countries as well as Africa and the Caribbean. As oxen they are generally docile and lethargic, making them more useful for slow work.

Their color can range from reddish brown through to the more predominant red, with varying amounts of white on the neck, and the underline. In males the color darkens towards the extremities, such as the head, legs and tails.

The Sahiwal in Australia

Sahiwal arrived in Australia via New Guinea in the early 1950’s. In Australia, the Sahiwal was initially selected as a dual-purpose breed. It played a valuable role in the development of the two Australian tropical dairy breeds, the Australian Milking Zebu and the Australian Fresian Sahiwal. Sahiwals are now predominately used in Australia for beef production, as crossing high grade Sahiwal sires with Bos taurus animals produced a carcass of lean quality with desirable fat cover.

The Sahiwal is the heaviest milker of all Zebu breeds and display a well developed udder. Sahiwals demonstrate the ability to sire small, fast-growing calves and are noted for their hardiness under unfavorable climatic conditions.

[Oklahoma State University]
 
Salers
This is one of the last European breeds to be imported into North America, the Salers(Sa'lair) breed has made tremendous strides in growth and is now an influential part of the American cattle industry. Currently, the breed is registering over 28,400 head per year and is growing at a phenomenal rate each year. At a time when most breeds are registering fewer numbers, the Salers breed is continuing to increase by producing profit oriented cattle for the industry.

The historical journey for the Salers breed, was first recorded by archaeologists as depicted from ancient drawings in cave dwellings dated some 7,000 years ago. The drawings were found near Salers, a small medieval town in the center of France. These drawings and the Salers cattle of today, which are very different from all other French breeds, bear some resemblance to the ancient Egyptian red cattle.

With such a unique background, the breed is considered to be one of the oldest and most genetically pure of all European breeds. This fact produces a marked positive effect on the predictability of Salers in crossbreeding programs.

Salers cattle are now known to be native to the Auvergne region of south central France. This isolated, mountainous area noted for its rough, rocky terrain and harsh, damp climate is characterized by poor soil and a wide range of temperatures throughout the summer and long winter. As the topography allowed for little cereal grain production, the Salers cattle were forced to become foragers with bred-in range-ability to utilize, almost entirely, native grasses in summer and hay in winter.

Until modern times Salers cattle were respected not only as beef animals, but as milk producers for cheese products and were also utilized as strong sources of animal power.

Salers cattle are typically horned and dark mahogany red in color, however a growing number of polled and black Salers are available. The availability of polled genetics in addition to both red and black, gives Salers the advantage of breeding program flexibility.

In the late 1960's and early 1970's, North American cattlemen were looking for new breeds to improve American beef cattle. In their search, a group of Canadians and Americans were impressed by Salers in France and eventually imported the first Salers bull, Valliant, into Canada in 1972. His semen was sold both in the United States and Canada and a new chapter in efficient beef production was about to begin.

Grassroots cattlemen were the breed's U.S. founders. They felt the cattle should prove themselves under the tough rigors and conditions of the commercial cattle industry before Salers were widely marketed. The breed was equal to the challenge. Salers created a strong market interest and excitement within the commercial cattle industry. This led to the historical formation of the American Salers Association in 1974 by 14 innovative and progressive cattlemen in Minneapolis, Minn.

The first imports directly into the United States came in 1975 with the arrival of 1 bull and 4 heifers. From 1975 to 1978, 52 heifers and 6 bulls reached the United States and more than 100 arrived in Canada. These cattle are the foundation of the breed in North America.

With more than a decade of solid growth behind it, the Salers breed continues to make lasting contributions to modern commercial cattle production. Documented proof of the breed's attributes of calving ease, maternal efficiency and carcass merit, through recognized research institutions and universities, assure Salers a bright future and a viable role in beef cattle production. The "balanced breed" is meeting, and will continue to meet, the needs of the beef industry.

[Oklahoma State University]
 
Salorn
Society: International Salorn Association
The Lean Beef Answer!
" Salorn" is a recently developed composite breed consisting of 5/8 French Salers and 3/8 Texas Longhorn blood. This combination of genetics utilizes the most adaptable breed of cattle in America - the Texas Longhorn - with the most proven carcass quality breed - the Salers.

The late professor Jan C. Bonsma, world renowned animal scientist of Pretoria, South Africa, and consultant to the International Salorn Association, stated, "It is my considered opinion that if the breed creation work on the Salorn is judiciously done, the Salorn breed will, in the long run, be a far superior breed to any of the synthetic breeds of America."

For over fifty years, Prof. Bonsma conducted seminars all over the world, visiting the United States 39 times to share his knowledge. His research in all breeds of cattle worldwide, observing their weaknesses and virtues, encouraged him to participate in the development of the Salorn.

At one of his seminars held in Wichita Falls, Texas in 1964, Prof. Bonsma advised cattlemen that it was very important to have some Texas Longhorn blood in their commercial herds in the United States. In numerous seminars, he cited extensive research indicating that the Texas Longhorn's conformational and adaptability traits are essential to maximizing profits in the commercial cattle industry. Dr. Bonsma emphasized that 80 percent of the cattle producing areas of the world are tropical. One-fifth have climatic conditions similar to the northern half of the United States. In most of the world, Brahman synthetic breeds dominate the basic genetics, however, that breed does not begin to compare with the Texas Longhorn and/or Salers in either quality or absence of genetic defects.

Dr. Bonsma believed that adaptability is the key to functional efficiency in all breeds of cattle. The Texas Longhorn is by far the most adapted breed in the southern United States, having been in North America nearly 500 years, under a survival-of-the-fittest production system. A number of attributes have evolved as a result of natural selection over these hundreds of years, producing tremendous strengths in comparison to other breeds. Their tropical adaptability, parasite resistance, longevity, calving ease, mothering ability, browse utilization, fertility and disease resistance are unquestionably superior to any other breed. Salers and Longhorns originated in almost the same areas of the world, prior to coming to America, and they share many important traits. In addition, Salers have a tremendous growth ability combined with calving ease and superior carcass quality.

The Salorn creation program began with registered Texas Longhorn females carrying the genetic traits of adaptability. Superior fullblood, smooth-coated, muscular Salers sires, selected for gentle disposition, have been mated to these cows. The resulting F1’s (1/2 Salers - 1/2 Longhorn) are bred to 3/4 Salers - 1/4 Longhorn to produce a 5/8 - 3/8 result, which is the First Generation Salorn. Successive generations of the 5/8 - 3/8 Salorn will insure breeding consistency.

A major consideration in the pioneering opportunity available with the Salorn is the fact that Texas Longhorn and Salers blood will be totally new in 4/5th of the cattle producing areas of the world. The potential for this breed, as an outcrossing breed improver, is unlimited on a global scale. Throughout each step of the breed creation program, Dr. Bonsma's program of visual appraisal for functional efficiency has been followed. Performance records are the second component of the selection process to produce superior Salorn genetics. [Oklahoma State University]

 
Sanhe
The Sanhe are milk/meat dual-purpose cattle. They are the product of long-time selection and crossbreeding between native Mongolian cattle and exotic breeds such as the Simmental and Shorthorn. They originated on the grasslands in the northeast of Inner Mongolia.

The noticeable characteristic of Sanhe cattle is the adaptability to the adverse environment where the temperature gets as low as -50 degrees Celsius. During a severe winter a monthly average temperature is below zero degrees Celsius. The grassland is completely covered with snow for about 200 days and the grass-growing season is limited to five months in a year. Cows usually drink ice water during the winter, and are exposed to direct sunlight with an air temperature as high as 35 degrees Celsius during the summer. Sanhe cattle can also stand harsh feeding and resist insect bites.

The Sanhe cow has a height of 130 cm and a live weight of 880 lbs.

Milk Production
The lactation length for Sanhe cows averages about 300 days but varies according to the feeding and management conditions. The average milk production per lactation is about 3000 kg with an average fat percent of 4.1 to 4.5.

[Oklahoma State University]
 
 
Santa Cruz
King Ranch Santa Cruz cattle represent more than seven years of intense research and development aimed at creating a more market acceptable beef animal that produced superior results as both a feeder and seedstock animal. The new cattle are a composite breed, produced by first crossing Santa Gertrudis cows with Red Angus and Gelbvieh bulls. This initial union produces 1/2 Santa Gertrudis and 1/2 Red Angus males and females; as well as 1/2 Santa Gertrudis and 1/2 Gelbvieh males and females. These half bloods are then crossed back on each other to produce a 1/2 Santa Gertrudis, 1/4 Red Angus and 1/4 Gelbvieh composite animal, the finished product. This is King Ranch Santa Cruz, as composites are then bred to composites, fixing the characteristics desired in the cattle and demanded by today's beef market.

Stephen J. Kleberg, Vice President of King Ranch, Inc. said that King Ranch Santa Cruz cattle have “excellent conformation, perform extremely well in the feedyard, and obtain maximum results at the packing plant.” Hal Hawkins, King Ranch animal physiologist, described the cattle as "very fertile, both male and female, reaching an early sexual maturity at 12 - 14 months of age. Weaning and yearling weights are excellent, and they are very gentle cattle that demonstrate good mothering instincts."

The new breed produces both polled and horned individuals. In color, they range from a light red or honey to a Santa Gertrudis cherry red. Mature weight in cows ranges from 1,100 - 1,200 pounds, while bulls tip the scales from 1,800 - 2,000 pounds. The cattle have proven very heat resistant and adapt extremely well to South Texas' harsh climate and environments. They range far and wide and work the large pastures of King Ranch very well.

Early in 1987, the need for a more market acceptable beef animal at King Ranch was the topic of conversation from the working pens to the board room. Top producers in the beef and livestock industry were brought in to aid in the project. Educators from the major agricultural universities across the United States were invited to share their knowledge with King Ranch. Twenty-six professors from fourteen universities participated in the formulation of a master breeding plan. These specialists in the various research fields which undergird progressive livestock operations, like King Ranch, included carcass and meat experts, reproduction and physiology scientists, breeds and breeding selection specialists, geneticists, nutritionists, botanists, veterinary scientists, and climatologists.

As a result of these meetings, King Ranch set some short and long term objectives in its breeding plan. Short term objectives included improved production (reproduction and fertility); improved market acceptability (carcass quality - grade and tenderness); and, cull cattle on strict economic considerations. Long term objectives included single breed type mating system using a composite breed; genetic policy that would produce a phenotypic look-alike; and, early sexual maturity with superior carcass quality and grade. The Santa Gertrudis breed was maintained, improved, and made more competitive.

Two breeds were selected to add to the Santa Gertrudis to achieve these goals. Gelbvieh were chosen for their fertility, high growth, early maturity, shortened gestation length, and moderate milk production. Red Angus were selected to add early fertility, ease in calving, high carcass quality, efficiency, and polled characteristics. [Oklahoma State University]

 
 
Santa Gertrudis
About 1910 the King Ranch of Kingville, Texas, one of the largest ranches in the United States, became interested in the possibilities of using Brahman cattle to improve the performance of the range cattle in their area. Tom O'Connor, who obtained some Bos indicus cattle from the Pierce Ranch in Pierce, Texas, gave a half blood Shorthorn-Brahman bull to the King Ranch. He was mated with a group of purebred Shorthorn females. All male calves from this cross but one, a red bull called Chemmera, were castrated and the heifers were turned out with Shorthorn bulls. In the fall of 1918 about sixty descendants of the O'Connor bull and his son were placed in a high quality pasture and their performance was such that the Kings Ranch became interested in crossbreeding Shorthorns and Brahmans.

Since no purebred Brahmans were available, the King Ranch secured fifty-two of the best three-year-old bulls that they could obtain from the Pierce herd. These bulls were three-fourths and seven-eighths Brahman. The bulls were divided among eight different herds with a total of approximately 2,500 Shorthorn cows. Two bulls were specifically selected and pasture mated to fifty cows each. These bulls were referred to as the "Chiltipin" bull and the "Vinotero" bull. One of the females in the Vinotero bull's group was a milk cow with one-sixteenth Brahman blood that she carried as a descendant of the O'Connor bull through his son Chemmera. The result of this mating was a bull called Monkey, who became the foundation sire of the Santa Gertrudis. All present day Santa Gertrudis descend from Monkey.

The name of the Santa Gertrudis breed is from Rincon de Santa Gertrudis, the name of the original land grant purchased by Captain Richard King from the heirs of Juan Mendiola. This land grant is where the first headquarters of the King Ranch was established.

In 1940, the United States Department of Agriculture recognized the Santa Gertrudis as a purebred.

Modern Santa Gertrudis cattle are approximately five-eighths Shorthorn and three-eighths Brahman. A deep cherry-red color has been established in the breed. The breed shows a relatively high degree of both heat and tick resistance. Their characteristics include ease of calving, good mothering ability and abundant milk supply. They also show very little evidence of a hump and have improved beef quality over most purebred Brahmans. Steers can be turned off at any age depending on environment and conditions, and are noted for their weight for age and ability to achieve high weight gains both on pasture and in feedlots.

There were 283 herds recorded in Volume I of the Herd Book. The King Ranch herd was designated as the Santa Gertrudis Foundation Herd. Other herds that had attained the purebred status by continuous grading up were designated as Foundation Herds. An official classifier of the Association inspects Santa Gertrudis and classifies the females as either certified or accredited and certified for bulls, for those animals meeting the classification requirements. Animals that do not meet the minimum requirements are rejected. [Oklahoma State University]

 
 
San Martinero, Also Known As: San Martin, Sanmartiniana
The San Martinero is found in Meta and Caqueta provinces of central Columbia. They are of Crillo type and are similar to the Consteño con Cuernos but have better confirmation. San Martinero cattle are usually beige, yellow-red or chestnut.

San Martinero were bred for weigh gain and milk yield. They are among the heaviest muscled of the Crillo breeds.

[Oklahoma State University]
 
 
Sarabi, Also Known By: Ardebili
The Sarabi is found in Iran and Azerbaijan. They are used for both diary and meat production. Individuals of this breed are typically red.[Oklahoma State University]
 
 
Senepol
In the 1800s N'Dama Cattle were imported to the Caribbean Island of St. Croix from Senegal, West Africa. By 1889, Henry C. Nelthropp's Grenard Estates was one of the largest N'Dama breeders with over 250 head which he maintained as purebreds. Nelthropp's son, Bromley, wanted to develop a strain of cattle that would combine the traits needed for good productions in the tropical Virgin Island environment. In 1918, while visiting the island of Trinidad, Bromley purchased a Red Poll bull to improve the milking ability, fertility and remove the horns of the N'Dama.

That bull and other Red Poll genetics were added over the next several years as Nelthropp selected for: 1) early maturity and maternal efficiency, 2) no horns and solid red color, 3) definite heat tolerance, and 4) gentle disposition. By the mid forties the desired genetic combination of Red Poll and N'Dama was achieved and the Senepol breed has been bred as fullblood ever since. The Nelthropp herd was dispersed to local breeders and the Senepol breed grew into four primary island herds. Ward Cannaday and Fritz E. Lawaetz maintained genetic records and eventually trademarked the Senepol name in 1954. Having established a herd book, the breed adopted an on-farm performance testing program through the USDA and the College of the Virgin Islands Extension Service in 1976. In 1977 the first plane load of cattle left for the U.S. mainland; 17 years later the Senepol influence has spread across the southern United States.

Breed Development

The isolation sheltered the cattle from the fads and fancies that have assaulted the purebred seedstock industry. Nor were they participants in the frame race. While other breeds made giant leaps in one direction, only to turn and make equally large strides in the opposite direction, the Senepol made a series of small, multiple-trait steps toward animals whose production met the demand of their breeders. St. Croix provided a unique situation where ranchers practice selection for the traits they desired and mother nature provided natural selection for cattle that could produce at superior levels under the harsh St. Croix environment.

Until Senepol cattle came stateside in 1977, there was a very limited seedstock market. The purpose of the cattle was to provide native beef for the island population of St. Croix; only the progeny from top females ever went back into the herd for replacements. To this day, there is still not even a "Stockyard" on St. Croix, the cattle were destined to become seedstock or go to a butcher shop. This limited market got the "heads cut off" of average and below average cattle and allowed the breed to be built on the cattle that worked and had an ancestral history of cattle that worked.

The cumulative St. Croix herd is closed, with no outside influence. The Senepol breed has had a limited genetic base and selection for superior performance has led to cattle that can take substantial levels of inbreeding. This accounts for the "true breeding" ability of the Senepol and the high degree of heterosis that they provide in crossbreeding systems. [Oklahoma State University]

 
 
Sharabi
The Sharabi is native to the northern cultivated areas of Iraq along the Tirgis River, the Sharabi is long in both body and leg. The hump is rather small which leads some to believe that is is derived from a mizture of humped and humpless cattle. The black-and-white and sometimes whiteback coloration as well as the upturned small horns suggest a relationship to the Jaulan of Syria.

The Sharabi is generally considered a poor dairy animal but some females have been known to attain milk yeilds of 6.8 kg per day.[Oklahoma State University]

 
 
Shetland, Also known by: Zetland
Shetland cattle closely resemble the Jersey, Canadian and Breton breed in conformation but Shetlands are Scandinavian in origin. They remained pure until the mid-1800s when small numbers of Shorthorn, Angus and Highland cattle were introduced to the Shetland Islands. In the 1920s, Friesian cattle were imported which resulted in the existing coloration of the breed of black-and-white while historically dun and red-pied animals predominated.

Originally these animals were a small, angular dairy breed with legendary longevity and resistance to diseases. Over time, and with the introduction of other breeds, they have increased in size. The average height for Shetland females is 105 cm with a mature body weight of 325 kg. In the 1970 the Rare Breed Survival Trust began a restoration program of the breed.[Oklahoma State University]

[Oklahoma State University]
 
 
Shorthorn
Society: American Shorthorn Association
The Shorthorn Breed of Cattle originated on the northeastern coast of England in the counties of Northcumberland, Durham, York, and Lincoln. These counties all touch the North Sea and lie between the Cheviot Hills and the middle part of England. The first real development of the Shorthorn breed took place in the valley of the Tees River. This river, the valley of which is so well known in the development of the breed, lies between Durham and York counties, and the large cattle that inhabited this fertile valley early became known as Teeswater cattle. In addition to having acquired a reputation for producing excellent cattle, the Tees River Valley excelled in crops, pastures, and generally high plane of agriculture.

Origin

Foundation Stock. North England is said to have been the home of cattle for centuries. Sinclair 1 suggests the small Celtic short-horned ox was found in England at the time of the Roman invasion and that later, cattle were introduced from northern Europe by the English, Danes, and others. By the 17th century well-known types of cattle existed in England, one of which was the "pied" stock of Lincolnshire, which was said to have been more white than colored, and the other red stock of Somerset and Gloucestershire. There existed in Holderness, a district of Yorkshire, cattle that resembled in size, shape, and color many of the cattle that were found in northern Europe at that time. At what time cattle had been introduced into England or by whom they were brought in is not definitely known. The cattle were said to have taken on flesh readily and would fatten into heavy carcasses although their flesh was coarsely grained and dark in color. Allen 2 states, "The cows were described as large milkers, and the bullocks as attaining a great weight of carcass and extraordinary production of tallow."

The Early Breeders. As early as 1580 there existed a race of superior short-horned cattle on the Yorkshire estates of the earls and dukes of Northcumberland. The coat color of these cattle varied, but among the colors found were light dun, yellow, yellowish red, deep red, red and white patched, white, and roans.

It was not until after 1750 that accurate records of consequence were kept of the cattle of the area or of the breeding practices that were followed. Between 1730 and 1780 many eminent breeders had distinguished themselves in their home localities for cattle of improved type and quality. Among those who might be mentioned are Sharter, Pickering, Stephenson, Wetherell, Maynard, Dobinson, Charge, Wright, Hutchinson, Robson, Snowden, Waistell, Richard, Masterman, and Robertson. These men and others recorded pedigrees in the first volume of the English Herd Book, which was not published until 1822, or after most of them were no longer active breeders.

The early breeders of Shorthorn or Teeswater cattle left a heritage with which later breeders could work. The cattle that they developed were usually of considerable size and scale, with wide back and deep, wide forequarters. Their hair and hide were soft and mellow. In addition, they were cattle that had ability at the pail and laid on fat readily under conditions of liberal feeding. It is not to be inferred that these were perfect or ideal cattle as compared to modern standards. They lacked uniformity and symmetry and were often quite prominent at their hooks and shoulder points; other faults, such as narrowness of chest, lack of spring of rib, short rumps, long legs, and unevenness of fleshing, left much to be desired. The ability of these cows to produce a good flow of milk has always been an asset to the breed, and size and scale have never been without merit. Breeders, of course, have striven through the centuries to correct some of the deficiencies that were prevalent in this Tees River stock, and at the same time to retain the most valued characteristics that the breed possessed.

Foundation of the Breed

The Contribution of Robert Bakewell. Robert Bakewell, who was born in Leicestershire in 1726, was a farmer of means who had a great influence on the Shorthorn breed although he never bred Shorthorn cattle. Prior to the time of Bakewell, farmers practiced the breeding of unrelated animals and prevented the mating of animals that were of close relationship. It remained for this animal-breeding enthusiast to demonstrate to the English farmer a revolutionary way to improve livestock. He demonstrated with his Leicester sheep and his long-horned cattle that animals of close relationship could be mated, and if rigid culling was practiced, desirable characteristics could thereby be fixed much more rapidly than by mating unrelated animals. Following the development of this breeding system by Bakewell, we find not only Shorthorn breeders but also breeders of many classes of livestock adopting his methods. Today Robert Bakewell is affectionately referred to, as the "Father of Animal Breeding" although in his time he was considered very eccentric and lacking in mental stability. This was a case of a genius in livestock breeding not being appreciated in his day.

The Colling Brothers. The Colling brothers, Charles and Robert, are often referred to as the founders of the Shorthorn breed of cattle. Other men had previously contributed to the native cattle of the area, but it remained for these two enterprising breeders to develop the first systematic breeding program. Charles Colling resided at Ketton, about four miles northeast of Darlington, in the country of Durham. Darlington had obtained considerable publicity as a market place or "fair" for cattle. Robert Colling settled at Barmpton, which was about a mile closer to the town of Darlington. It was on these two farms that the foundation of the breed was largely laid. About 1783 the Collings visited the home of Bakewell and made a study of his breeding methods.

The system of inbreeding followed in the Colling herd is illustrated in the diagrammed pedigree of Comet (155) in Chart 2-1. This bull was calved in 1804 and created quite a sensation when he sold for $5,000 at public auction. The second calf sired by Favorite (252) was steered and became known as the "Durham Ox." This beast was fitted for public exhibition and it was shown at the reputed weight of 3,400 pounds. In those days the cattle were exhibited but were not shown, as are our cattle at the present time. They were toured over the country in somewhat of a sideshow exhibition. Mr. Robert Colling reared a free-martin heifer that became famous by the name "The White Heifer that Traveled." This nonbreeder was sired by Favorite (252) and attained a live weight of 2,300 pounds. The publicity that was accorded the "Durham Ox" and "The White Heifer that Traveled" did much to advertise the new breed of Shorthorn cattle that was just being formally founded.

There is no question but that the herds of the Colling Brothers left their mark on the Shorthorn breed because nearly all Shorthorns in the United States or in Great Britain today trace to their herds in one or more lines. In their herds the bulls Foljambe (263), Favorite (252), and Comet (155) were bred and used, and they also used the great bull Hubback.

The Booth Family. The Booth family was the next to add considerable merit to the Shorthorn Breed. It is not definitely known when Thomas Booth of Killerby, in Yorkshire, began breeding purebred Shorthorn cattle, but it is known that in about 1790 he purchased what might be considered the foundation of his herd. Mr. Booth operated from the estates of Killerby and Warlaby, which were not far apart and only about 15 miles south of Darlington. Consequently he was near the Colling Brothers and drew heavily upon them for foundation bulls. Unlike Mr. Bates, his contemporary as a breeder, Mr. Booth did not go to the Colling herd for females but instead used Colling-bred bulls on rather large females that he purchased from other sources. It is said that he used bulls that were somewhat more refined than the cows to which they were bred. Apparently Mr. Booth was the first breeder to place great stress on fleshing qualities, and, in contrast to Mr. Bates, valued beef almost to the exclusion of milk. He developed an aptitude in his cattle to take on flesh, particularly during the dry period. Because of his stress on thickness of flesh and strength of back and loin, the booth family produced a line of Shorthorns of strictly beef type that had strong constitutions. Mr. Booth seemingly appreciated the Hubback and Favorite breeding more than that of other cattle in the Colling herd, and after securing the type of cattle he wanted, he inbred with much success.

In 1814 Richard Booth, Thomas Booth s son, after studying his father s method of breeding, began breeding Shorthorns. He leased a farm near Studley and later lived at Warlaby. He is said to have improved upon his father s cattle, and he particularly improved the cattle in the forequarters of bred for straighter underlines. In 1819, John Booth, the brother of Richard Booth, began breeding cattle at Killerby. After the establishment of the Royal and Yorkshire Shows in 1839, John Booth exhibited at these shows.

Bates Shorthorns. Thomas Bates was born in Northcumberland in 1775 and was of a good family. In boyhood he was sent to grammar school, spent some time taking more advanced studies, and later was given professional agricultural training. At 25 years of age he leased the extensive estates of Halton Castle but later lived at Ridley Hall and Kirklevington. He made a thorough study of the Colling herd and the cattle they produced and inspected the herds of many other breeders of the time before he decided to lay the foundation for a Shorthorn herd. In establishing his herd Mr. Bates drew very heavily upon the blood of the Collings  herd and purchased his first cattle from them in 1800 at what was then regarded as very high prices. In 1804, he purchased the cow Duchess, by Daisy Bull (186), from Charles Colling at a reported price of $500. At that time she was four years of age and in calf to Favorite (252). As will be seen from Chart 2-2, Duchess is a direct descendant of both Favorite and Hubback. This breeding was said to have greatly impressed Mr. Bates, as he claimed she was the only living direct descendant of these famous bulls. When Charles Colling affected his Ketton dispersion, Mr. Bates was on hand and purchased and granddaughter of his original Duchess cow and named her Duchess 3d. She was sired by the $5,000 but Comet (155), who was in turn sired by Favorite (252), and Favorite was also the sire of the dam of Comet, and of the cow Young Phoenix; Duchess and duchess 3d became the foundation of the very famous Duchess family, which is often thought of as synonymous with Bates breeding.

Thomas Bates stressed heavy milking qualities in his cattle, and our present Milking Shorthorns largely stem from his breeding. Thomas Bates might be regarded as the founder of the dual-purpose type of Shorthorn. James Fawcett of Scaleby Castle gave the following description of the Duchess as they were found in the herd of Thomas Bates:

The character of the Duchess at this time is that of good and handsome wide spread cows, with broad backs, projecting loins and ribs, short legs and prominent bosoms. The head was generally inclined rather to be short and wide than long and narrow, with clear eyes and muzzle, the ears rather long and hairy, the horns of considerable length and waxy. They were good milkers and had for the most part a robust healthy appearance. The color was mostly uniformly red, with in many of them, a tendency to white about the flank.

There was low fertility among the duchess females, and in 1831 the Duchess family had produced only 32 cows in 22 years. Thirty-one of these were recorded in the Herd Book. During this period of time all of the Bates herd bulls with the exception of one had been of Duchess blood.

In Speaking of the Duchess cattle, Allen 3 states:

The simple fact was that Duchess cows as a whole, had not been prolific or constant breeders, through abortions and other causes, and whenever they passed a year or two without breeding, he fed off and slaughtered them. The bulls that descended from them showed no lack of virility, and Bates still contended that the tribe had increased in their fineness of quality, were admirable feeders, and good milkers when breeding.

In 1831 Mr. Bates was searching for some females of Colling breeding and spied the bull Belvedere (1706) looking through a barn door at the farm of a Mr. Stephenson, and purchased the bull for $250. Belvedere was a yellow-roan bull of large scale with heavy shoulders and a mean disposition, but he was a bull of mellow hide. He was used freely on the Duchess females of the Bates herd, and was the sire of Duchess 34th, who was bred back to her sire to produce Duke of Northumberland (1940), the greatest breeding bull but was also shown to the Championship of England.

[Oklahoma State University]
 
 
Siboney
The Siboney has been developed in Cuba since the late 1960's. The breed is 5/8 Holstein and 3/8 Cuban Zebu.[Oklahoma State University]
 
 
Simbrah
Society: American Simmental Association
An experiment combining Simmental with Brahman that began in the pastures of a few dedicated cattlemen in the late 1960s has evolved logically into the breed called Simbrah. The Brahman or Zebu, the most numerous cattle type on earth, contributes heat and insect tolerance, hardiness and excellent foraging ability, as well as maternal calving ease and longevity. The Simmental complements these excellent traits with early sexual maturity, fertility, milking ability, rapid growth and good beef characteristics. The very docile disposition of most Simmental is also a plus for this composite. These two cattle breeds have been used in cooperation to produce Simbrah, superior in many ways to the parent breeds.

Simbrah has been described as "The All Purpose American Breed". Developed in America, Simbrah genetics may be called on to infuse superior maternal traits into a herd. Or, due to their rapid growth, vigor, and heat tolerance, Simbrah may be the answer in a terminal cross program. In the final analysis, Simbrah will produce a lean, high quality beef product.

Originally developed in the hot, humid areas of the Gulf Coast, Simbrah have shown they can Thrive in the Northwest and Northeast regions of the United States where temperatures may range 115 degrees in the summer to 25 degrees below zero in the winter. There is great interest in the breed worldwide. Simbrah are being developed in many areas where Zebu breeding predominates as well as other areas where Simbrah’s unique blend of features is desired.

Breeds of Simbrah know the importance of producing practical cattle with economic advantages. Simbrah have been developed to be as functional and trouble free as possible. Breeders stress structurally sound underlines, i.e. a clean sheath teamed with large scrotal size on the bulls and a well-attached udder with small teats on the cows. Many also put emphasis on pigmented eyes, thick muscling, and reasonable dispositions. Some programs produce polled Simbrah.

Commercial operators appreciate the long and productive life span of Simbrah cattle. Frequently, well beyond 10 years of age, unpampered cows are still weaning heavy calves and bulls are still breeding. This can mean a significant savings in replacement costs for the rancher.

After weaning, most Simbrah calves will perform well if placed directly in the feedlot. At this phase in their lives, they are growing rapidly and will gain very efficiently. They can produce a very desirable carcass at 12-15 months of age.

Enthusiastic Simbrah breeders are utilizing all the tools, animal science and technology available to modern animal breeders. They have a broad genetic base in which to work and a sophisticated evaluation program for performance and progeny information. The Simbrah Registry is kept by the American Simmental Association.

[Oklahoma State University]
 
 
Simmental
Society: American Simmental Association
The Simmental is among the oldest and most widely distributed of all breeds of cattle in the world. Although the first herd book was established in the Swiss Canton of Berne in 1806, there is evidence of large, productive red and white cattle found much earlier in ecclesiastical and secular property records of western Switzerland. These red and white animals were highly sought because of their "rapid growth development; outstanding production of milk, butter, and cheese; and for their use as draught animals." they were known for their imposing stature and excellent dairy qualities.

As early as 1785, the Swiss Parliament limited exports because of a shortage of cattle to meet their own needs. The Swiss "Red and White Spotted Simmental Cattle Association" was formed in 1890.

Since its origin in Switzerland, the breed has spread to all six continents. Total numbers are estimated between 40 and 60 million Simmental cattle world-wide. More than half of these are in Europe. The spread was gradual until the late 1960s. Records show that a few animals were exported to Italy as early as the 1400s. During the 19th century, Simmental were distributed through most of Eastern Europe, the Balkans, and Russia, ultimately reaching South Africa in 1895. Guatemala imported the first Simmental into the Western Hemisphere in 1897, with Brazil following suite in 1918 and Argentina in 1922.

There are reports from a variety of sources indicating that Simmental cattle arrived in the United States before the turn of the century. Simmental were reported as early as 1887 in Illinois, according to one source; in 1895 in New Jersey; and in both New York and New Mexico around the 1916 to 1920 period. An ad in an 1896 issue of the Breeder's Gazette, published in Chicago, also made reference to "Simmenthal" cattle. However, those early imports did not capture the attention of the American cattleman and the Simmental influence died quietly away until the late 1960s.

The breed made its most recent appearance in North America when a Canadian, named Travers Smith, imported the famed bull "Parisien" from France in 1967. Semen was introduced into the United States that same year, with the first half-blood Simmental calf born in February of 1968. The American Simmental Association was formed in October of 1968. Simmental spread to Great Britain, Ireland, and Norway in 1970 and to Sweden and other Northern European countries shortly thereafter. The first purebred bull imported into the United States in 1971 and Australia received Simmental semen and live animals in 1972. The World Simmental Federation was formed in 1974. In 1976 Simmental cattle were shipped to the Peoples' Republic of China.

The breed is known by a variety of names, including "Fleckvieh" in Germany, Austria and Switzerland as well as many other European countries."Pie Rouge", "Montbeliard", and "Abondance" in France; and "Pezzata Rossa" in Italy. The Simmental name is derived from their original location, the Simme Valley of Switzerland. In German, Thal or Tal means valley, thus the name literally means "Simme Valley".

The amazing growth of Simmental cattle in North America is really a reflection of what has already occurred in most agricultural countries of the world. Presently, the American Simmental Association registered about 80,000 cattle annually into the Simmental and Simbrah herdbooks. The Association ranks among the top four of the U.S. beef breed associations in annual registrations. [Oklahoma State University]

 
 
Siri
Animals of this breed are found in the hill tracts around Darjeeling (Bengal, India) and in Sikkim and Bhutan. Bhutan is said to be the real home of this breed. It is distributed from that area to the various parts of Sikkim and Darjeeling. The Siri has a hump that is thoracic and muscular-fatty. Presumably Siri cattle have some blood from the cattle in Tibet. Small cattle with similar black and white markings have been found in Sikong Province of China, which occupies a portion of the Tibetan highlands northeast of Bhutan. Siri cattle crossed with Nepali cattle look like Siri, but they can be distinguished by their color pattern and position of hump and horns. These are known as Kachcha Siri or imitation Siri cattle.
Characteristics
The color most frequently seen are black and white or extensive solid black, in color patterns similar to that of Holstein-Friesians. The animal carries a thick coat all the year round, and it is generally believed that this protects them from heavy rains and severe cold. The general form of the animal is massive. The head is small, square cut and well set on. The forehead is wide and flat. The horns are sharp and directed forward and is usually covered with a tuft of long coarse hair. The position of the hump is slightly forward compared with that of other Zebu breeds. The dewlap is moderately developed and the sheath in the male is tight. Strong legs and feet are characteristics of this breed. The hooves are broad but strong. The udders of the cows are well developed.

It is observed that the animals of this breed can stand the rugged conditions of the mountains very well. When the animals are brought down to the plains they do not seem to do so well. Bulls are eagerly sought after for draft purposes due to their size and reputed great strength. They are also used for agricultural work such as plowing, cultivating, threshing, etc.

[Oklahoma State University]
 
SLB see Swedish Friesian (below)
 
Slovenian Cika, Also known by: Tolmin Cika, Bohinj Cika, Bohinjska cika, Tolminaka cika
The Tolmin or Bohinj Cika, a brown piebald cow, is a lighter variety of Pinzgauer (belan) cattle which used to be the largely prevalent breed in Tolminsko, Gorenjska and the surroundings of Ormo and Ptuj in the 19th and in the first half of the 20th century. Even as late as 1964, 25% of the cows in Primorska were Tolmin Cika. Two varieties of Cika (the Tolmin and Bohinj types) have been formed from autonomous breeds, the markings of which are the same as those of a Pinzgauer; therefore, they are taken as the same variety. The Slovenian Cika is smaller than the Pinzgauer with a height of 116 - 123 cm.

In the second half of the 19th century, the Bohinj variety, the descendant of which is the Gorenjska Pinzgauer, used to weigh about 200 kg (Povse, 1893). A smaller frame is probably the result of modest breeding conditions and of a selection to a smaller frame. The Tolmin Cika were larger than the Bohinj variety (about 400 kg), due to crossbreeding of Pinzgauer bulls as well as better nutritional conditions. The Cika especially excelled in its adaptability for breeding in mountainous regions. Because of its small frame, firm hooves and low weight it is especially suitable for grazing on steep slopes, where heavy breeds could cause too much erosion. Slovenian Cika have, considering their weight and the nutritional conditions they were raised, high milk production levels with their annual production as much as six times their live weight. It is difficult to estimate the actual number of Cika type cows which have been preserved in Slovenia. This breed is almost extinct.

[Oklahoma State University]
 
 
South Devon
Society: North American South Devon Association
An English Breed Alternative
The South Devon originate from the counties of Devon and Cornwall in Southwest England, where they have been a distinct breed since the 16th century. They are the largest of the British breeds and are not related to Devon cattle which are also from England. Over 100 years of selection for performance have given the South Devon its outstanding qualities of beef and maternal characterics.

The first South Devon were brought to the United States in 1969 and in 1974, the North American South Devon Association was formed for the purpose of development, registration and promotion of the South Devon breed of cattle in this country. The breed is exceptionally adaptable to varying climatic conditions and is presently well established on five continents. Whereever they have been introduced South Devon's have been well accepted and exhibited strong performance for production and profitability.

South Devons are available both horned and polled, as Fullbloods, Purebreds and Percentage cattle. Some blacks are also available.[Oklahoma State University]

 
SRB see Swedish Red-and-White (below)
 
Sussex
The Sussex was developed in southeast England primarily a beef breed. Improvement of the breed did not begin until the late 18th century. The herdbook was established in 1874, and a polled section was added in 1979. It has since been exported to Southern Africa and other tropical regions of the world because the breed adapts well to hot climates and resists tick-borne disease.

Sussex cattle have dark red coats and white tail switches. In colder climated the winter coat of the breed is often curly. The average Sussex cow measures 135 cm at the withers, and weighs 585 kg. Bulls have an average height at the withers of 145 cm, and weigh 950 kg.

 
Svensk Låglandsboskap see Swedish Friesian (below)
 
Svensk Röd och Vit Boskap see Swedish Red-and-White (below)
 
Swedish Friesian, Also Known By: Svensk Låglandsboskap, SLB, Black and White Swedish, Swedish Lowland
The SLB is the second biggest cattle-breed in Sweden. The cows weigh about 600 kg and give about 7900 kg milk in one year. This breed originates from Germany and Holland. The Swedish Friesian are a dairy breed originating from Dutch imports made from 1860 to 1907 and a few select recent importations. They were developed from crossing the imported East Friesian cattle with local breeds. The modern SLB have quite alot of American Holstein in their breeding. This was done to improve the milk production of the breed. SLB is however not very high producing when it comes to meat (and calves), and they are not very resistent against illness.[Oklahoma State University]
 
 
Swedish Red-and-White, Also Known By: Svensk Röd och Vit Boskap, SRB, Swedish Red Spotted
The Swedish Red-and-White is the most common dairy breed found in Sweden. It is red with small white markings. The breed originated from Red Pied Swedish and Swedish Ayrshire. The cows weigh around 550 kg, and they give about 7500 kg milk in one year. The SRB is a resilient breed of cattle and they are also used for meat production.[Oklahoma State University]
 
 
Swedish Red Polled, Also known by: Röd Kullig Lantras, Röd Kullig Boskap
The Swedish Red Polled is a dairy breed found in Sweden. It is similar to the Red Polled Østland of Norway and the West Finnish. The breed is almost extinct.

The Swedish Red Polled varies in color from brown to a yellowish red. Some individuals will have white markings on the belly. Females stand 117-123 cm, weigh 350-450 kg and give 5500 kg milk annually.

In the 1970´s there were only one farm using Swedish Red Polled(SRP) cattle and they only had 23 animals. The genetic material was too small for survival so imports of foreign cattle were made to save the breed. The foreign breed most like the SRP was the East-Norwegian Red Polled Cattle, and therefore that was the genes used to save the SRP.

SRP were very common in the landscapes Dalarna and Bohuslän and also in the
area around Stockholm. SRP can live on poor woodlands and give quite good milk, both in taste and quantity.

[Oklahoma State University]
 
Swedish Red Spotted see Swedish Red-and-White (above)

 

 



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